Most people just use regular Rit Fabric Dyes for coloring anodized aluminum. You can probably find them at a fabric or craft store.
I believe Caswell sells fluorescent dyes that work for anodizing, but a quick Google/eBay search will probably turn up other stuff as well.
Fluorescence, in a nutshell, is where the atoms in something absorb UV light and immediately re-emit it as visible light. This normally occurs within about 10 nanoseconds, so it’s basically just changing the wavelength of the light bouncing off it; the effect ends as soon as the light source is gone.
With glow-in-the-dark, also known as phosphorescence, that absorbed energy is slowly released over several hours instead of being shot out all at once. This allows something to charge up with high-energy light for a short time and release low-energy light for a long time.
Does that make more sense?